Musictime

Melayu popular music in Indonesia, 1968–1975 (Andrew N. Weintraub)

Here, the musical development and socio-cultural meanings of pop Melayu (or Melayu pop)are discussed, a popular music genre created in Jakarta during the late-1960s that achieved commercial success in Indonesia during the 1970s. Pop Melayu blended Western-oriented pop and localized Melayu (also called Malay) music into a hybrid commercial form. Pop and Melayu had different symbolic associations with music, generation, social class, and ethnicity in Indonesia. Pop was marketed mainly to younger listeners who viewed it as ‘cool’ (gengsi) and progressive (maju). For this younger audience, ‘pop’ looked to the future. Conversely Melayu music had the connotation of ethnicity, tradition, and authenticity. Melayu music, as performed by Malay orchestras called orkes Melayu had a large audience base, but was not trendy. Under these conditions, what was the impetus for recording companies, producers, and musicians to create pop Melayu? What did the music mean to musicians, producers, and listeners within the context of culture and politics in the late 1960s and early 1970s? What were the implications of blending pop and Melayu for the future of Indonesian popular music?
During the politically and economically transformative period of the 1960s, pop Melayu grounded the present in the past. As Indonesia moved toward a system of Western-style capitalism, sustained industrialization and intensified commodification of culture, pop Melayu sonically transcoded images and memories of the past, albeit an imagined past, for Indonesian listeners.  I borrow this concept of ‘transcoding’ from Ryan and Kellner’s analysis of film and social life: ‘Films transcode the discourses (the forms, figures, and representations) of social life into cinematic narratives. Rather than reflect a reality external to the film medium, films execute a transfer from one discursive field to another’ (Ryan and Kellner 1988:12). I will suggest that pop Melayu in the 1960s and 1970s mediated the contradictions and ambivalence of everyday life during a period of rapid social and cultural change. Musicians, recording companies, and producers were cultural mediators in this process.
In this chapter, I will describe the social and cultural conditions that made it possible to articulate ‘pop’ and ‘Melayu’ as a new genre. As a crossover genre, pop Melayu was a commercial effort to expand the market for popular music by bringing together or unifying diverse audiences. By 1975, a large number of prominent bands and singers had recorded pop Melayu albums.

Bands that recorded pop Melayu albums:
Pop Melayu Vol. 1Album: Pop Melayu Vol. 1 (1974)

Koes Plus

Label: Remaco RLL-314
Injit-Injit Semut Album: Pop Melayu Vol. 1 Injit-Injit Semut (1974)

The Mercys - Erwin Harahap

Label: Remaco RLL-339
Pop Meelayu Vol. 3Album: Pop Meelayu Vol. 3

D'lloyd

Label: Remaco RLL-343
Pop MelayuAlbum: Pop Melayu vol. 1

The Steps

Label: Remaco RLL-433

Celebrated singers, Tetty Kadi, Emilia Contessa, Mus Mulyadi and Eddy Silitonga also recorded pop Melayu albums during the 1970s.

I situate pop Melayu within the social and cultural conditions of modernity in Indonesia in four thematic ways. First, its creative flowering coincided with the first decade of the New Order capitalist state in Indonesia. New private recording companies and private radio stations stimulated the development of new forms of music, new ways of advertising music, and an increase in sales of recordings. Second, as a ‘text’ about modernity, pop Melayu marked a transition between something old and something new. Change was articulated through sound, visual representation, and the discourse about pop Melayu in popular print media. Third, it was a form of modernity marked by ethnicity and specific to Indonesia. This “ethno-modernity” presented more than two alternatives: either the American-infused pop music of the future or the Malay-inspired music of the past. Fourth, it was music produced for a young generation and it helped set the course for the future of popular music. One article referred to pop Melayu musicians as the ‘generation of 1966’ (‘angkatan ‘66’); ‘Regrouping musikus Angkatan ‘66’ (1968:5).
Pop Melayu refers to a commercial genre of popular music and not simply any kind of popular music in the Malay (or Indonesian) language. My focus will be on the commercial genre of pop Melayu, and not other forms of Melayu popular music or popular music in the Indonesian language (bahasa Indonesia).  Nor will this chapter address songs composed previous to the era of pop Melayu which might be considered precursors or progenitors of pop Melayu. Data are based on interviews with musicians, analysis of music and lyrics, depictions on record covers, and critical readings of popular print media from the period. I am grateful to Hank den Toom, Jr. for providing me with recordings from the period, and Ross Laird for recording data. I would also like to thank Shalini Ayyagari, Bart Barendregt, Henk Maier, Tony Day, and Philip Yampolsky for helpful comments during the writing of this essay. Particular emphasis is given to the work of Zakaria, an influential musician, composer, and arranger. The scope covered in this chapter encompasses the formation of pop Melayu around 1968 and it ends in 1975 when two things happened: (1) pop Melayu was established as a mainstream genre in the music industry; and (2) Rhoma Irama began taking contemporary Melayu music in a different direction, namely dangdut, which blended rock with Melayu. My interest here lies in the development and meaning of pop Melayu in its formative period.

Melayu

Central to my discussion of music in mid-1960s Jakarta is the notion of ‘Melayu’or Malayness. Melayu is a word of great slippage, and therein lies its productive force: it allows people to authorize all sorts of meanings (Andaya 2001). Defined in the colonial period as ‘stock,’ race, and ethnicity on the basis of biological appearances, Melayu implies a core set of ideas, values, beliefs, tastes, behaviours, and experiences that people share across geographical areas and history (Barnard and Maier 2004).  The concept and naming of Melayu as culture and identity existed before colonialism but not as a way of organizing people according to physical markers of race and ethnicity. Some differentiation is necessary, and perhaps the terms ethnicity and race can be usefully applied. For example, Malays as an ethnic group (suku Melayu) resided around the Melaka Straits and Riau whereas Malays as a racialized group (rumpun Melayu) populate the modern nation-states of Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei Darussalam, and (southern) Thailand in Southeast Asia. Yampolsky (1996:1) refers to the ethnic group as the ‘primary’ area of Melayu culture, and to, what I would call, the racialized group as the ‘secondary’ area of Melayu culture. For further on the construction of Melayu as a social category see Andaya 2001; Shamsul 2001; Reid 2004; Kahn 2006 and Milner 2008. However, Melayu never represented one uniform discourse, practice, or experience exclusive to all members of that group (Barnard and Maier 2004:ix). As a discursive category, Melayu has always been constructed, imagined, fluid, and hybrid. Melayu was an arena of constant reinvention. Notions of Melayu culture, language, and identity have always operated situationally and contextually (Andaya 2001).
What frames Malayness as a discursive category in popular music of the 1960s and 1970s in Indonesia? In contrast to the mistaken colonial idea of Malayness as cultural homogeneity and origins, I invoke Homi Bhabha’s notion of ‘ambivalence’ to understand the simultaneous attraction and aversion to Western colonial cultural forms in post-colonial Indonesia of the 1960s (Bhabha 1994). I aim to show how Malayness in popular music discourse of 1960s Indonesia represented: (1) the blending of Malay indigeneity and tradition (discursively constructed as ‘Melayu asli,’ or the ‘original’ or ‘authentic Melayu’) with Western forms, ideas, and practices; and (2) a ‘third space,’ where signs of the past could be appropriated, translated, rehistoricized, and read anew (Bhabha 1994:36; Rutherford 1990). In the politically transformative period of 1960s Indonesia, pop Melayu music formed links with discourses of indigeneity and tradition while simultaneously articulating with commercialization and modernity.
Melayu as a category of musical composition and performance did not represent a return to tradition in the face of modernity. Stylistic experimentation and compositional variety had long characterized Melayu popular music. The musical genres bangsawan, orkes harmonium, and orkes gambus of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries played mixed repertoires of Indian, Chinese, Middle Eastern, and Malay music. Orkes Melayu (Malay orchestras), which I will discuss further, continued this trend. Bangsawan (also called opera and stambul) troupes travelled from Malaya (Malaysia) to Java in the 1890s (Tan 1993:73; see also Cohen 2006; Takonai 1997 and 1998). Named after the harmonium, a small reed organ from Europe via India, orkes harmonium (or O.H.) included harmonium, violin, trumpet, gendang (small two-headed drum), rebana (frame drum), and sometimes tambourine. Radio logs indicate that orkes harmonium played a mixed repertoire of Malay, Arabic, Indian, and European music (Weintraub 2010:39-40). Gambus orchestras featured the gambus (long-necked plucked fretless lute) or ‘ud (pearshaped lute) and were accompanied by small double-headed drums (Ar. marwas, pl. marawis). Immigrants from the Hadhramaut region (Yemen) presumably brought the gambus and marwas with them to Indonesia (Capwell 1995:82–3). Even the term ‘orkes Melayu’ suggests mixing and contradiction: ‘orkes’ (from the Dutch ‘orkest’ or the English ‘orchestra,’ which denoted modernity) and ‘Melayu’ (signifying a cultural past). Melayu popular music was a ‘hybrid language’ (bahasa kacukan), the kind that always breaks the rules rather than follows ‘correct’ and standardized usage (Barnard and Maier 2004). Further, Melayu was a term of perspective: for example, ‘orkes Melayu’ had different musical properties and symbolic associations in Medan, Surabaya, and Jakarta during 1950 to 1965 (Weintraub 2010).
In the following section, I will trace the historical development of pop Melayu based on my interpretation of musical recordings, popular print media, and interviews with musicians and producers who were active during the period. I begin with the period of Sukarno’s Old Order (1949– 1965) because it informs an understanding of ‘pop’ for the purposes of this essay. I will focus on the formative period of pop Melayu recording, which occurred during 1968 to 1975 in Indonesia’s capital of Jakarta, the center for the production and consumption of pop Melayu.

The (Late) Old Order

The politically transformative decade of 1960s Indonesia is often characterized in terms of the fiercely anti-colonial and socialist-leaning Sukarno regime and the capitalistic and neoliberal economic policies of the Suharto regime. The transition from Sukarno’s Old Order (Orde Lama) to Suharto’s New Order (Orde Baru) took place mid-decade, after the military coup and subsequent killing of 500,000 to a million people beginning on October 1, 1965. Knowledge about cultural history of the period has been buried, particularly in Indonesia, due to the Suharto government’s effort to erase the PKI and the Left from the historical record. Recent scholarship has begun to investigate the cultural history of Indonesia 1950–65, particularly in terms of literature (Foulcher 1986; Day and Liem 2010; Lindsay and Liem 2012). However, studies of popular culture, especially popular music, remain unexplored (Lindsay 2012:18).
During the late 1950s, the anti-imperialist regime of Indonesia’s first president Sukarno denounced the allegedly harmful influence of American and European commercial culture (Frederick 1982; Hatch 1985; Sen and Hill 2000).  The Committee for Action to Boycott Imperialist Films from the USA (PAPFIAS) boycotted American films in 1964 (Biran 2001:226). Sukarno viewed American and British music as symbolic and material markers of colonialism, imperialism, and capitalism. During a speech in 1959, Sukarno criticized the grating sound of American popular music, using the non-literal sounds ngak-ngik-ngok to characterize its noisy clatter (Setiyono 2001). As a result, popular music bands with Englishsounding names were compelled to switch to Indonesian ones to disarticulate the influence of American music. In a speech in 1965, Sukarno declared that ‘Beatle-ism’ was a mental disease and that he had ordered the police to cut the hair off anyone found listening to the Beatles (Farram 2007). Sukarno even imprisoned members of the American and British-influenced pop music band Koes Bersaudara (Koes Brothers) for 100 days in 1965 (Piper and Jabo 1987:11).  As interesting and important as this case may be, I will not discuss Koes Bersaudara in this essay because I feel that their case has been covered amply in the literature on Indonesian popular music of the 1960s. Largely due to the banning and jailing of Koes Bersaudara, historians of the period have focused on Sukarno’s hostility to Western popular music (Lockard 1998; Sen and Hill 2000; Farram 2007).
Emphasizing the Old Order’s hostility to Western pop tends to obscure the diverse activities of musicians, producers, recording companies, and fans of popular music. Indeed, Sukarno attempted to ban Western popular music recordings from entering Indonesia in the late 1950s and early 1960s. However, despite Sukarno’s aversion to the sound of Western popular music, it still managed to cross geo-political borders. Although Western popular music was limited by government regulation on the national radio network RRI (Lindsay 1997:111), hundreds of illegal studentrun radio stations in Jakarta broadcast prohibited recordings of American popular music (Sen 2003:578). Recording companies continued to produce American- and British-sounding popular music, following trends established in the early 1950s. In addition, songs inspired by popular music of India, the Middle East, and Latin America energized the repertoire of the many orkes Melayu groups in urban Indonesia (Frederick 1982; Takonai 1997 and 1998; Weintraub 2010). Sukarno himself encouraged producers, composers, and musicians to mix regional songs with Western musical elements (Piper and Jabo 1987:10). Despite claims that the early 1960s was one of the most repressive periods in Indonesian music history, complete with national government censure of recording, radio, and public performances, the music of this period was productive in shaping ideas about modernity along the axes of social class, gender and ethnicity.
Orkes Melayu and pop Indonesia constituted distinct genre categories in terms of song lyrics/themes, language(s) used, instrumentation, performance practices and occasions, and audience. In the following section, I will elaborate on these genre categories and describe how pop Melayu combined elements of orkes Melayu and pop Indonesia.

Orkes Melayu

In 1960s Jakarta, orkes Melayu (O.M.) was an important genre term, but it actually describes several different kinds of ensembles, performance practices, and publics. At a very basic level, orkes Melayu was an ensemble of musical instruments (an ‘orkes’ or ‘orchestra’) used to accompany Malay-language songs. Songs were sung in a vocal style characterized by distinct kinds of ornaments (called gamak or cengkok) conventionally associated by musicians with the music of the Melayu ethnic group. Song forms included pantun verse structures as well as modern sectional forms (e.g., AABA). Pantun are made up of two couplets, generally structured into four lines with the rhyme scheme ABAB. The songs may have come from the geographic region considered the homeland of Melayu culture (in the southern Malay peninsula, Malacca, eastern Sumatra, and Riau), but they could also have been newly composed in a Melayu style in other parts of Indonesia including Jakarta. Either way, the repertoire, vocal style, and certain instruments in the ensemble signified a connection to Melayu ethnic identity or Malayness.
The instrumentation was not set. Recordings of orkes Melayu and photographs from the early 1960s reveal ensembles of Western instruments and two indigenous instruments, namely a small double-headed drum shaped like a ‘capsule’ (gendang kapsul) and bamboo flute (suling or seruling). The Western instruments could include accordion, violin, piano, vibraphone, acoustic guitar, string bass, woodwinds (flute, clarinet), brass (saxophone, trumpet), and percussion (maracas, in addition to the gendang kapsul). The historical and symbolic associations of the violin and accordion with Melayu music had been established earlier (Yampolsky 1996). Orkes Melayu bands could be heard on national radio programs, recordings, and in films. Although orkes Melayu has often been referred to as kampungan (regressive, backward, rural), it is hard to imagine these ensembles as such due to their centrality in mass media. See ‘Elvy Sukaesih’ (1972:18); ‘Peta Bumi Musik’ (1973:17); ‘Panen Dangdut’ 1975:48. A kampung refers to a neighbourhood that can be located in a village, town, or city. Kampungan connotes inferiority, lack of formal education, and a low position in a hierarchical ordering of social classes (Weintraub 2010; see also the next chapter by Emma Baulch).
Another kind of orkes Melayu was a pick-up group that performed in a variety of settings. Orkes Melayu was discursively coded as music of ‘ordinary people’ or ‘masses’ (rakyat). They were denigrated by elite youths as ‘kampungan’, country bumpkins, because they played an older kind of music. Orkes Melayu musicians and audiences themselves never thought of themselves as ‘kampungan,’ a term that expressed disdain. Orkes Melayu musicians in Jakarta viewed Melayu music with a certain amount of nostalgia, as expressed in the following quote by Zakaria in 1975:

Looking back for a moment, the birth of Melayu songs is like a step-child without a father. They were born on the side of the road, in ramshackle huts, next to railroad tracks, in food stalls, or in places where villagers hold celebrations, and even in lower class prostitution quarters. They danced to their heart’s content as they joked around to their dying day. They enjoyed these kinds of songs because they are easy to remember, the language is simple, and they are nice to listen to. Besides these psychological factors, the song texts give voice to suffering, love, sex, etc. Those songs, which are indeed sentimental at heart, are very appropriate to the emotional states of their listeners. See Zakaria (1975), ‘Sensasi Pop Melayu Ditahun 1975: “Begadang” yang jadi bintang’, Sonata 53, as found in the private collection of Zakaria.

A comparison with pop music is instructive. Orkes Melayu bands had fewer resources than pop music bands. For example, they performed with only one microphone for the singer and one or two speakers for amplification. They were seen by elites as lagging behind pop music because they did not play electric instruments (guitar, bass, organ).
Their music was a hodgepodge and was viewed in a negative light by elites as impure or hybrid. Since the early 1950s, Indonesian composers had been copying Indian melodies from film songs and composing new lyrics in Indonesian. They played dance music with a wide range of Zakaria, pers. com., 2005). On the one hand, the repertoire for Orkes Melayu was old and conservative. On the other hand, the repertoire was vast and cosmopolitan and included Indian, Middle Eastern, Latin, and European songs. It did not look to the past or the present; it looked in many directions at once.

Pop Melayu vol. 1Album: Pop Melayu vol. 1

The Favourite's

Label: Remaco RLL-247
Pop MelayuAlbum: Pop Melayu Vol. 3 (1977)

Fantastic (Fantastique) Group

Label: Purnama PLL-1036
Pop Melayu Vol. 1Album: Pop Melayu Vol. 1

Ge & Ge - Charles Hutagalung

Label: Remaco RLL-629
Pop Melayu vol. 2Album: Pop Melayu vol. 2

The Favourite's

Label: Remaco RLL-440
Pop MelayuAlbum: Pop Melayu

Murry's Group

Label: Remaco RLL-841
Pop Melayu Vol. 2Album: Pop Melayu Vol. 2 (1974)

Koes Plus & Murry

Label: Remaco RLL-347

Pop Indonesia

The nascent genre of pop Indonesia referred to music whose repertoire, song forms, arrangements, and instrumentation were rooted in American and British popular music. Also called band or band remaja (youth band), pop Indonesia was geared primarily to an emerging middle- and upperclass youth culture (‘the middle classes and up’). Pop Indonesia bands often played indoors in buildings (gedung), and earned the epithet gedongan (from gedungan) which implied class distinction and ‘progressive’ attitudes. Composer and musician Guruh Soekarnoputra, the son of Indonesia’s first president Sukarno, stated that the term gedongan and kampungan stemmed from identification with class distinction:

Pop Music in the past came to our country via ‘privileged youngsters’ whose parents had bought records from outside the country. They played these records at home and their friends heard them. Then they bought ‘band’ instruments and played them at their parties. Eventually the music got on the radio stations run by those youngsters. At that point youngsters outside [privileged residential districts] of Menteng and Kebayoran heard them. They began to think that this music was cool, and if someone was not familiar with that music, they would be considered a ‘country bumpkin’ (Soekarnoputra 1977:48). ‘Musik pop dahulunya masuk ke negeri kita lewat ‘anak-anak gedongan’ yang orangtuanya bisa membeli piringan hitam di luar negeri. Lalu diputar di rumah, dan kawan-kawannya mendengarkan. Kemudian mereka beli alat-alat band, bikin pesta dan main di sana. Akhirnya masuk ke pemancar-pemancar radio yang dibikin anak-anak muda. Mulailah anak-anak luar Menteng dan Kebayoran mengenalnya. Lantas timbul anggapan bahwa inilah musik keren, dan kalau tidak kenal sama musik demikian, bakal tetap jadi ‘orang kampung’.

Pop Indonesia was modeled on Euro-American mainstream popular music including pop, rock, and jazz. Pop Indonesia songs were accompanied almost exclusively by Western instruments (primarily guitar, bass, drums, and keyboard). Bands had a microphone for each person and multiple speakers. The language of pop Indonesia songs was Indonesian and English. It often incorporated vocal harmonies, in contrast to orkes Melayu, which generally consisted of a solo vocal part accompanied by instruments. Themes centred on romantic love. Musicians were often trained to read scores. They had financial backing that allowed them to purchase fine-quality instruments (Dunia Ellya Khadam 1972:36). Private radio played a large role in disseminating new forms of popular music during the New Order. During the Old Order, the national radio network RRI, as part of the Ministry of Information, had sole authority for broadcasting (Lindsay 1997:111). Amateur HAM radio operators existed and even had their own association; this type of operation was called amatir radio (which was different from radio amatir).
Private radio stations (radio amatir), suppressed during the Old Order, came back as part of the student movement of 1966 (Lindsay 1997:111). During the late 1960s, especially in Jakarta and Bandung, competing radio stations battled for airwave frequencies (Lindsay 1997:111). Private commercial radio stations flourished in the early New Order period (early 1970s), and they set themselves apart, respectively, by playing different kinds of music from each other.
In the late 1960s, production of popular music recordings increased. The Soeharto regime encouraged capital expansion in all sectors of the economy. Recording companies looked for ways to expand the market for products. Distinct markets existed for pop and Melayu in terms of recordings, concerts, and audiences, and both were successful. New fusion genres formed out of old ones. In the following section I will describe the efforts of the musician, composer, and bandleader Zakaria (1936–2010) who in the early 1960s began composing songs that blended pop with Melayu music.

‘Becoming Melayu’: The Work of Zakaria

Zakaria was born in 1936 in the area of Paseban in East Jakarta. He sang Melayu songs as a child growing up and cited the songs of the Malaysian singer and film star P. Ramlee as an important influence (pers. comm, 2005). Zakaria was self-taught as a musician (guitar) and was a talented singer. In 1956, he began singing with several orkes Melayu bands including Orkes Sri Murni (led by M. Masyhur) and Orkes Cobra (led by Achmad B.). He joined Said Effendi’s Orkes Melayu Irama Agung as a percussionist in 1957, and began composing shortly thereafter.
In 1962, he formed a group called Pancaran Muda (‘The Image of Youth,’ also called Orkes Melayu Pancaran Muda and Orkes Pancaran Muda). The band had a modern sound. With support from Jakarta’s popular entertainer Bing Slamet, Zakaria learned how to arrange music for an orchestra. He also worked on songs and new arrangements with pop and jazz pianist Syafei Glimboh, as well as violinist Idris Sardi. Zakaria’s songs com- bined elements of both genres. For example, in the song Luciana, the refrain (‘Luciana’) was composed in a pop style whereas the verse was Melayu (Zakaria, pers. comm., 2005). From the album Antosan featuring Lilis Surjani accompanied by Orkes Idris Sardi, Bali Record RLL-002, released in 1965–66.

Antosan

In 1964, Zakaria produced the first commercially released songs by Elvy Sukaesih, a young 13-year-old singer who would later earn the moniker 'the queen of dangdut' (ratu dangdut). Elvy Sukaesih could sing both Melayu music and pop music and the songs on her first album were accompanied by a group made up of orkes Melayu musicians and pop (band) musicians. The session took place at the Remaco recording studio on December 19, 1964 and the record was released in January, 1965. The session included the following songs:

Suswati Album: Suswati (Label: Remaco RL-015)

  • Rahasia sukma (Secrets of the soul, composer Ilin Sumantri, singer Elvy Sukaesih)
  • Tjurahan hati (From the heart, composer M. Harris, singer Elvy Sukaesih)
  • Mustika (Beautiful jewel, composer Ilin Sumantri, singer Kartini Rosadi)
  • Pelita hati (Light of my heart, composer Ilin Sumantri, singer Achmad Basahil)
  • Suswati (referring to a name of a person, composer Sjafie Glimboh, singer Hartono)
  • Djoget gaja asli (Joget [a dance] in the old style, composer Zakaraia, singer Kartini Rosadi)
  • Hari raya (Holiday, composer Zakaria, singers Achmad Basahil and friends)
  • Heryansjah (name of a person, composer Zakaria, singer Zakaria)

  • Zakaria’s Pancaran Muda did not emphasize the Indian-derived sound of orkes Melayu, which was discouraged in 1964 as the central government was trying to divert attention from Indian culture and refocus it on Indonesia. The Sukarno government, which had vigorously encouraged Indian film imports during the late 1950s and early 1960s, changed course by ceasing to allow imports during 1964–1966. As Indonesia became more isolated politically, songs with an Indian flavor (berbau India) were discouraged from being played on the radio (Barakuan 1964: 21; 'Orkes Melayu Chandralela’ 1964:21; ‘Dangdut, sebuah flashback’1983:15). The Indianderived songs of orkes Melayu, some of them direct copies from popular Indian films, were the targets of these efforts.
    Zakaria mixed what he describes as ‘Melayu-India’ songs with Indonesian ones. In a description of his music taken from the album cover of Rohana released in 1967–68, Zakaria is quoted as follows: Liner notes written by Jul Chaidir on the back cover of the album Rohana featuring Elvy Sukaesih accompanied by Orkes Melaju Pantjaran Muda, directed by Zakaria (Remaco RL-050), c. 1967–68.

    Pengertian

    The song style that I present on my recordings is a mixture between music of Melayu-India and [pop] Indonesia itself. Since I do not copy a particular foreign song and then give it an Indonesian text, the songs will not sound like songs whose melodies and rhythms simply copy Indian songs. Tjorak lagu2 jang saja hidangkan dalam rekaman2 saja, ialah tjampuran antara lagu Melaju-India dan Indonesia sendiri. Djadi saja tidak menjeplak sesuatu lagu luar untuk kemudian diberikan teks Indonesia, oleh karena itu dalam lagu2 ini tidak akan terdengar lagu2 jang nada dan iramanja menjeplak lagu2 India thok.
    There was a vacuum in popular music recording after the military coup and subsequent regime change from Sukarno’s ‘Old Order’ to Suharto’s ‘New Order’ in 1966–1967. From 1961 to 1963, Irama produced as many as 30,000 discs per month, but by the end of 1966 only pressed about 1000–2000 per month (and only sold about 500 per month) (MYK 1967). A similar gap is evident in Lokananta’s production of hiburan music (Yampolsky 1987:119–20). Deregulation of film imports, which began on 3 October 1966 (Said 1991:78), enabled greater access to foreign film music. Zakaria promoted singer Lilis Suryani as a competitor to singer Ellya Khadam, the top orkes Melayu singer of the era known for her Indianinspired songs Termenung (Daydreaming, c. 1960), Boneka dari India (A doll from India, 1962–63), and Kau pergi tanpa pesan (You left without a word, 1967); the latter was considered a ‘comeback’ for Melayu music à la India. From the album Pengertian featuring singer Ellya M. Harris accompanied by Orkes Melayu Chandralela, directed by Husein Bawafie (Remaco RLL-011), c. 1967.

    Pengertian

    Previously criticized by Sukarno as a symbol of imperialism and capitalism, American popular music was encouraged under the new president Suharto. Recordings of American-influenced pop Indonesia boomed in the late 1960s.
    Zakaria was a savvy promoter of his band Pancaran Muda. Descriptions of Zakaria in popular print media depict him as a musical soldier for the nation. For example, ‘he had a face that looked like a soldier’; Tokoh Wadjar, 19 December 1965, as found in the private collection of Zakaria. another journalist referred to him as a ‘general’ of the band Pancaran Muda (bertindak sebagai panglima perangnya). His work was characterized as ‘revolutionary art’ (seni untuk revolusi) because it supported ‘the motherland that must be defended to the death’ (ibu pertiwi yang harus dipertahankan mati-matian). Mingguan Wadjar, 19 December 1965, as found in the private collection of Zakaria.

    In the late 1960s, Melayu-inflected songs accompanied by pop bands ascended in popularity. Successful songs in this vein included Boleh-boleh (It’s allowed) sung by Titik Sandhora and accompanied by Zaenal Combo (1968); Wajah menggoda (Seductive face) sung by Lilis Suryani (Remaco RLL-018, 1968),

    Wadjah Menggoda

    and Tiada tjerita gembira (Not a happy tale) sung by Muchsin Alatas (Remaco RL-050, 1968).

    Rhohana

    After seeing positive sales figures from these and other songs, the Remaco recording company hired Zakaria as a producer, composer, arranger, and talent scout. Zakaria was instructed to create Melayu songs for a stable of pop singers:

    Mr. Yanwar, the director of my section, told me that every singer who recorded at Remaco had to have a Melayu-type song on each record. It was a good opportunity for me [a composer of Melayu songs] that fans and pop singers liked Melayu songs. Subsequently, pop Indonesia bands like Bimbo, Koes Plus, Eka Jaya Combo, and 4 Nada recorded pop Melayu songs. (Zakaria, pers. comm., 2005)

    Zakaria taught pop singers Mus Mulyadi, Lilis Suryani, Wiwiek Abidin, and Titiek Puspa, among others, how to sing vocal ornaments typical of Melayu music (Zakaria, pers. comm., 2005). They were trained to sing in a more strident timbre than used in pop. Zakaria taught them to sing without too much vibrato, a hallmark of pop music. (Rh)Oma Irama, who had achieved success as a pop singer before becoming a star of contemporary Melayu music (dangdut), honed the Melayu vocal style by working with Orkes Melayu Chandralela bandleader Husein Bawafie who remarked: ‘He was often told not to sing with too much vibrato. Because dangdut is different from pop.’ (‘Ia sering diberitahu agar tidak terlalu banyak menggunakan vibra (getaran). Pasalnya, bernyanyi lagu dangdut berbeda dengan pop’ (Tamala 2000, no page numbers available). According to the composer, singer, and journalist Yessy Wenas, singers of Melayu songs had to be able to produce rich tonal variations, triplets, portamenti, punchy (staccato) tones, partial wailing, and shrill sounds. (Yessy Wenas, pers. comm., 2012). Penyanyi lagu Melayu harus punya teknik intonasi yang kaya variasi, not triol satu ketuk tiga nada, nada mengayun, menyentak, setengah meratap, melengking. He noted:

    The singer Wiwiek Abidin felt stiff and encountered many problems when she began learning the ornaments of Melayu songs. But after a while she figured out how to sing in the style of Melayu songs in her own distinct way. Wiwiek commented that singing Melayu songs is easy to hear but difficult to follow because there are so many ornaments and there are almost no breaks [in vocal phrases]. She said that there are no definite rules, and only the composer of the song knows [the parameters of the composition]. (Lagu2 ‘dang dut’ mulai di senangi banyak orang, c. 1974). Penyanyi Wiwiek Abidin … merasa canggung dan menemui banyak kesulitan ketika baru mulai mengenal lekukan2 (intonasi) lagu2 melayu. Tapi lama kelamaan dia temukan juga gaya2 lagu melayu yang tersendiri ciri kasnya itu… Wiwiek memberikan komentar bahwa menyanyi lagu melayu adalah gampang di dengar tapi susah di ikuti, karena lekuk2an lagu melayu banyak sekali belok2nya dimana batas lekukan2 itu hampir tidak ada, katakanlah tidak ada patokan yang pasti, hanya pengarang lagunya saja yang tau’. See Wenas. J. (date unavailable, c. 1974), ‘Lagu2 “dang dut” mulai di senangi banyak orang’, as found in the private collection of Zakaria.

    Yessy Wenas’s commentary noted that Suryani had figured out how to sing in a Melayu style (albeit in her own way). Despite not knowing the parameters of the style, she was able to recreate a style of singing that was convincingly Melayu-sounding. The composer Zakaria had his own definition that stressed the compromise or in-betweenness of pop Melayu. It was not ‘either/or’ but ‘both/and.”’ Zakaria defined pop Melayu simply as ‘When a pop singer sings a Melayu song in a pop vocal style accompanied by a pop music band’ (Zakaria, pers. comm., 2005). They may have inserted an ornament here and there, but the vocal style emphasized pop rather than Melayu.

    Musical Style of Pop Melayu

    In the following section I will examine two songs that merged pop and Melayu, focusing on texts and musical characteristics.
    Djangan duduk di depan pintu (Don’t sit in front of the door), c. 1970, exemplifies the Melayu modernity of pop Melayu. The song is from the album entitled Kepantai Florida ([Let’s go] to the beach in Florida, Mutiara Records MLL 025). The cover of the album shows a photograph of Zakaria and female singer
    Ida Rojani dressed in casual beach attire sitting on a rock (Fig. 5.2). The photograph is pasted against a background that looks more like the coast of Java than the southern gulf of the United States. ‘Florida’ was not a place that ordinary people would actually go for a vacation, but it was a sign of escape and play. In Djangan duduk di depan pintu sonic markers of Melayu music include the percussion parts played on a gendang kapsul (a small double-headed drum shaped like a ‘capsule’) and tambourine. Other key markers of Melayu music are accordion and violin, which appear in other examples (see below). Markers of modern music include piano, vibraphone, and electric instruments (bass).
    In her pop music recordings, the singer Lilis Suryani often used a smooth and syrupy vocal quality that was similar to her American counterparts. In this example, however, Lilis Suryani sings with a strident tone. Unlike Melayu singers, who inserted characteristic ornaments toward the ends of phrases, this vocal style is largely unornamented.
    Despite the American influences in instrumentation and vocal timbre, the two singers engage in a dialogue common in pantun-structured Melayu music. They express themselves in the style of the Indonesian language spoken in Jakarta.

    Example 1: Djangan duduk di depan pintu
    Album Kepantai Florida; Mutiara Records MLL 025 (side 1: ML 12247), c. 1970
    Composed by
    Zakaria
    Sung by Zakaria and
    Ida Rojani


    F=father
    D=daughter

    F: Jangan suka duduk di depan pintu - Don’t sit in front of the door
    Coba ayu dengar babeh bilangin - Listen to your father’s words
    Nanti jadi lama dipungut mantu - It’ll be a long time before marriage
    Sampe kapan bisa babeh ngawinin - When will I be able to marry you off?
    D: Emang babeh paling sih bisa aje - You’re good at talking
    Aye dengernya ih jadi malu - Hearing you makes me embarrassed
    Kapan aye masih mau sekolah - Because I want to go to school
    Soal gituan tuh sih entar dulu - And other things [i.e. marriage] have to wait.
    F: Bagus, biar denger kateye - Good, but listen to me.
    F: Anak perempuan gak usah merih - A young girl does not need to be smart
    Pokok asal bisa nulis dan bace - long as she can write and read
    Biar sekolahnye di kelas tinggi - Even if she achieves a good education
    Ahirnye kerjenye di dapur juga - In the end she still works in the kitchen.
    D: Babeh jangan bilang sembarang bilang - Father don’t say that
    Perempuan sekarang haruslah maju - Girls nowadays have to move forward
    Kalau aye dapet ke kedokteran - If I can become a doctor
    Bisalah ngurusin anak dan cucu - I can take care of children and grandkids.
    F: Bagus bagus babeh demen dech. - Good, good, Father likes that.
    [repeat previous verse] - [repeat previous verse]
    F: Bagus tuh baru namanye anak babeh huh-uh - Good, now that’s my girl.

    Album cover Kepantai Florida ([‘Let’s go) to the beach in Florida’), Mutiara Records MLL 025, c. 1970, featuring Orkes Melayu Pancaran Muda, directed by Zakaria.

    Kepantai Florida


    Djangan duduk di depan pintu is a saying that literally means ‘don’t sit in front of the door’ (because you will block the path of those going in and out). Symbolically, ‘sitting in front of the door’ stands for being too aggressive. ‘Don’t sit in front of the door’ is a warning for young girls: ‘you’ll never get married if you’re too aggressive.’
    Yet, the young daughter in this example resists her father’s advice, and insists on ‘sitting in front of the door.’ She asserts her will to finish school so that she can become a doctor and take care of everyone in the village. This exchange between a father and daughter translates intergenerational conflict and the changing role of women into song. This kind of conflict, and the striving of women for equality, goes back to the colonial period, but had a different intensity in the context of the late 1960s and early 1970s. On the one hand, women were cast as wives and mothers as part of the gendered ideology of the Old Order. On the other hand, melayu popular music in indonesia, 1968–1975 181 with increasing industrialization during the late 1960s, women became increas ingly important actors in the workforce (Robinson 2009:90). In this song, the public transformation of gendered identities has become a private family matter, discursively transcoded for a public audience in popular song. The daughter rejects male patriarchy, which circumscribes a woman’s role as housewife and mother. Eventually the father comes around to the daughter’s point of view, signifying acceptance of the woman’s desire. From an old patriarchal saying about sitting in doorways, to a new articulation of women, education, and work, this short upbeat song transcodes the social transformation of gendered and generational identities.
    The vocal style of the music contributes to the narrative meaning of this song. The first voice one hears in the song is the father, who sings ‘don’t sit in front of the door.’ His daughter respectfully challenges him in a somewhat malu manner (shy, reticent, reserved). She articulates her refusal in a relaxed manner, somewhat behind the beat, stretching her words over the main beat. The woman’s voice seems to get louder and more strident with each successive verse, as the male voice recedes into the background. By the second verse her words fall clearly on the beat and she is emphasizing her words with more vibrato. By the end of the song, the father sounds like an acquiescent old man, shuffling away in the background. He has shifted his point of view completely, expressing pride in his daughter’s progressive attitude.
    In Bila suami kerja (While husband is at work), c. 1975, the accompaniment of gendang, mandolin, and accordion indexes Melayu music of the period. Electric guitar and bass and piano, and especially the unornamented vocal line, articulate a modern sound.
    In this fascinating example, a man visits a woman’s home and asks if her husband is there. After learning that her husband has gone to work, he prepares to leave. However, she opens the door and invites him in for a drink. After establishing that she is interested in having an affair, he invites her to a beautiful place to spend a long afternoon together (and maybe an evening).

    Example 2: Bila suami kerja
    Album Sallama; Indra Records AKL 102 (side 1: TMS 102A), c. 1975
    Composed by Zakaria
    Sung by Mus Mulyadi and Rifa Hadidjah

    m=male
    f=female

    m: Maaf ganggu nyonya - (Excuse me, Ma’am).
    f: [?]
    m: Apa boleh abang numpang bertanya - May I ask you something?
    f: Tentu boleh saja - Of course you may.
    m: Suami nonya ada - Is your husband home)?
    f: Kebetulan barulah pergi kerja - Actually, he just left for work.
    f: Memang ada urusan bang - Is there something you need brother)
    m: Huh-uh ada. biase - Yeah, the usual).
    m: Kalaulah begitu ku permisi nyonya - Don’t be afraid. say what’s on your mind).
    m: Tapi bagaimana - But how can I?
    f: Apakah maksudnya - What do you mean?
    m: Kalau suaminya datang tiba-tiba - What if your husband comes home?
    f: Gampang itu soal kecil - Don’t worry about that.
    m: Bukannya gitu, Abang kan baru sekali ini - But this is my first time here.
    m: Nyonya ini hari tak ada acara - Ma’am, I don’t have any plans today.
    m: Baik kita pergi ke mana kau suka - Let’s go to a place you like.
    f: terserahlah ku setuju saja - It’s up to you, let’s go.
    m: Kita bertamasya - Let’s go somewhere.
    f: Ke puncak yang indah - To a beautiful place.
    m&f: Di sanalah kita berkasih mesra - where we can make love la-la-la-la-la-la.
    f: Mus Mus, kita pulang yo! ayo udah sore nih - Mus Mus, let’s go home! It’s late afternoon already
    m: Ah tanggung. Abang kan masih kangen. Kita pulang pagi aja ya - Ah, hold on. I’m still longing for you. Let’s go home tomorrow morning, ok?

    The freedom and directness of the lyrics are striking. Extramarital affairs were part of everyday life, but were rarely discussed in public. This example translates female agency and desire into song (specifically on the word abang (lit. ‘older brother’ or form of address by wife to husband) which the singer turns into the sexual ah-bang). It is noteworthy that the married woman initiates the affair, while the man is hesitant and coy. In a reversal of conventional male-female roles, in which men speak in public and women are silent, it is the woman who states ‘don’t be afraid to speak your mind!’
    The song invites multiple and conflicted readings. In one reading, the song turns male-female relations upside down, and places the modern woman in the position of actor rather than passive receiver. This reading celebrates female sexuality and power. However, we must consider these characters within the moral framework of this tale. In another reading, she is assumed to be the one responsible for the potential breakup of the family. This woman is not only ‘acting,’ but ‘overakting,’ a code word for vulgarity and backwardness. Not only is the woman having an extramarital affair, she is doing it when her husband is at work! In this way, the song articulates with both modern and progressive roles of woman as agential, while also serving as a morality tale about what can happen when women are let loose and ‘not afraid to speak their mind!’ The song thus becomes a sign for struggles over the meaning of changing male-female relations, morality, and sexuality in modern New Order Indonesia. These struggles would continue to be played out in dangdut, a contemporary form of Melayu music that also grew out of orkes Melayu.
    The bridging of pop with Melayu as a commercial genre had important implications for the future of pop music in Indonesia. By 1975, most of the top national singers and groups had recorded pop Melayu songs. Pop Melayu invigorated the careers of Jakarta-based pop Indonesia bands Koes Plus, Panbers, Mercy’s, and D’Lloyd. These groups produced their own form of upscale Melayu music characterized as Melayu Mentengan after the expensive residential area Menteng in central Jakarta where youth from privileged families lived (‘Panen Dangdut’ 1975:45).
    Why, as stated in a 1975 Tempo magazine article, did the ‘aristocrats’ (priyayi) in the music industry begin ‘lowering themselves’ (turun ke bawah) to sing Melayu music? According to the article, market forces had compelled producers and pop singers to go along with the Melayu trend, sometimes begrudgingly (as in the case of pop singers Titiek Puspa and Mus Mualim). When asked why producers followed the trends of the industry, Ferry Iroth, a producer at the Remaco record company, stated simply, ‘We sell products’ [and Melayu sells] (‘Panen Dangdut’ 1975:3). Popsinger Mus Mualim noted that ‘pop music has an unstable (wandering) quality that always wants to find something new’ (‘Panen Dangdut’ 1975:47). For the pop audience, Melayu music was perceived as something different, trendy, and therefore marketable.
    During the early 1970s, pop producers and musicians were competing with dangdut, a form of contemporary Melayu music with roots in orkes Melayu. The popularity of dangdut was a major factor that pushed pop singers and bands to adopt Melayu songs, song forms, and vocal style. Singers who had been trained in orkes Melayu, including Rhoma Irama, A. Rafiq, Elvy Sukaesih, and Mansyur S., were familiar with both Western pop and Melayu music. As dangdut’s popularity soared in the mid-1970s, pop Melayu was gradually pushed aside.

    Conclusion

    In the mid-1960s, pop Melayu (Melayu pop) combined some of the most progressive (pop) with some of the most conservative (Melayu) music (as well as tinges of Indian film music and Middle Eastern popular music). Melayu stood for music with a strong connection to tradition, a basis in Middle Eastern and Indian music, a link to Malaysia and other Malays, and a community of Muslims. On the other hand, pop Indonesia looked toward the future, was strongly influenced by American pop music, was not considered to have ethnic associations, and was non-religious in nature (although some singers were Christian and some were Muslim). Slipping around this binary and reductionist model of past/future, East/ West, and traditional/modern, pop Melayu composers and musicians wove the past (old) into the present (new).
    In contrast to static and essentialized colonial definitions of culture, ‘Melayu’ can more productively be understood using postcolonial theory as hybrid, liminal, and ambivalent. This ‘third space’ sensibility is demonstrated clearly in the genre pop Melayu. I used the term ‘ethno-modernity’ to describe how pop Melayu participated in new ways of seeing oneself as both modern and Malay (‘Melayu’).
    In this chapter, I have examined pop Melayu from several different angles. As a form of commercial pop music, pop Melayu capitalized on the popularity of Melayu music to sell records. As a form of Melayu music, it did what Melayu had been doing for a long time: branching out, blending, appropriating, and complicating genre distinctions. Melayu songs composed, arranged, and performed in an American-influenced style were very much part of a Melayu sensibility in music.
    Pop Melayu presented more than two alternatives: either the American-infused pop music of the future or the Malay-inspired music of the past. The new pop Melayu sound was ‘cosmopolitan’ and internationalist. By ‘sounding’ elsewhere, pop Melayu looked in many directions at once and presented ways of imaging a future for Indonesian audiences that built the past into the present.

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    Anna Djamil
    Anna Mathovani
    Anna Susanty
    Anna Tairas
    Anne Riza
    Anni Hadi
    Annie Ibon
    Annie Landouw
    Annie Rae
    Anno Garut
    Anny Kurnia
    Anny DS
    Anoas
    Anok Roekini
    Anthon Napitupulu
    Antique
    Anton Landouw
    Anton S.
    Antun Z.
    Anugerah
    Anwar A.
    Anwar Alawi
    Any Aryani
    Aom Kusman
    Apel Pop
    Apple Band
    Ardianty
    Aresba
    Arga Group
    Ari A. Riyanto
    Aria
    Aria Yunior
    Ariani Siregar
    Arianto
    Arie Koesmiran
    Arie Wibowo
    Aries Kurniawan
    Ariesta Birawa
    Ariestya Pasha
    Aristokrat
    Armada
    Arman
    Arniz Muin
    Aroma Group
    Arsianti
    Arspando
    Arulan
    Arum Pujianti
    Arumba
    As Salam
    Asdi Noor
    Aseng Suwarsih
    Asif Asmara
    Asifah A.S.
    Atjih
    Asli
    Asmala Malasano
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    Asmidar Darwis
    Asnath Hasibuan
    Assalam
    Assjabaab
    Astam Kelana
    Astri Ivo
    Astrid
    Astuti
    Atauw
    Ateng
    Ati
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    Atikah Hadi
    Atie Adiyatie
    Atiek CB
    Ating
    Atju Sugandi
    Atty David
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    Auladi
    Aum Kusman
    Awab Haris
    Awara
    Ayodhia
    Ayu Ting Ting
    Ayu Soraya
    Ayu Wedayanti
    Ayub
    Azhari
    Azis Baraba
    Azizah Zainul
    B. Faisal
    B. Hayad
    B.J. Supardi
    B.K.T.N.
    Bab el Haq Orkestra
    Babay Suhaeny
    Babay Zuhryah
    Baby Face
    Baby Joel
    Bachrum Andria
    Bachtiar Effendy
    Baden Powell
    Bagong
    Bahagia
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    Baju
    Bakar Iskandar
    Bally
    Bambang Aries
    Bambang Herna Trismadany
    Bambang R.
    Bambang S. Karsono
    Bambang Soewarso
    Bambang Susanto
    Bambino
    Bandawati
    Bani Adam
    Bangkit Sanjaya
    Bangladesh
    Bani Adam
    Barakatak
    Bardut Stardust
    Barindang
    Bartje Van Houten
    Basijo
    Bastian Irfandhy
    Bastian Steel
    Basuki
    Bawafie Group
    Bayu
    Bayugroup
    Be3
    Beach Girls
    Beat Stone
    Bedah Komala
    Bee-Ronk's
    Bee Wa Fa
    Bei Mardusari
    Beib Alwi
    Beib Blues
    Begou's
    Beka Orkest
    Belia
    Bening
    Benjamin Tanutama
    Benno Pattiwael
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    Benny Ishak
    Benny Mustapha
    Benny Soebardja
    Beno Benyamin
    Bentoel
    Benyamin Sueb
    Benz
    Berlian
    Berlian Hutauruk
    Bernard Yzerdraat
    Bert Paige
    Best
    Betharia Sonata
    Betty Nirwati
    Bhakas Hany
    Bharata
    Bhasela
    Bhayangkara
    Bhess
    Bhineka Tunggal Ika
    Bian Assegaf
    Bianca Pattirane
    Big Kid's
    Bilitonte
    Bill & Brod
    Bill Saragih
    Bill Toma
    Billy
    Billy Eden
    Bima
    Bimbo
    Bina Ria
    Bing Slamet
    Bintang Jakarta
    Bintang Semarang
    Bhineka Ria
    Bhinneka Eka Nada
    Bintang Purnama
    Bintang Surakarta
    Bintang Terang
    black Arief
    Black Brothers
    Black Lists
    Black Papas
    Blambangan
    Bloon
    Blue Diamonds
    Blue Hill
    Blue Notes
    Bob Rozano
    Bob Tutupoly
    Bobby Sandhora
    Bobby's Group
    Boernam
    Boetje Pesulima
    Bondan Prakoso
    Bonie Natasia
    Bornok Hutauruk
    Borodudur
    Borry Saiya
    Bosta Indah Group
    Botjah Ria
    Botol Kosong
    Boy Is Haryanto Boy Iskak
    Boy Karto
    Bram Adrianto
    Bram Atjeh
    Bram Manusama
    Bram Titaley
    Brianna Simorangkir
    Bridgestone
    Brigadier General Rudi Pirngadie
    Brimoresta
    Brims
    Broery Persulima (Marantika)
    Broery Syaranamual
    Buana Suara
    Buda's Kwartet
    Bubi Chen
    Bubi Rama
    Budhy R. Sutedjo
    Budi Rahardjo
    Budi Sukarno
    Budiman B.J.
    Bugis Tandjung
    Bujung Kamang
    Bukit Siguntang
    Bulan Purnama
    Bull
    Bung Salim
    Bunga Citra Lestari
    Bunga Indah
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    Bunga Nirwana
    Bunga Violeta
    Bypass
    Caca M. Arsyad
    Cahaya Gemelang
    Cahya Purnama
    Cahya Sumirat
    Camelia Malik
    Campur DKI
    Canary Orkest
    Candra Darusman
    Carlos Diernhammer
    Casino Group
    C'Blues
    Cecep Akhmad Sudrajat
    Cendrawasih
    Cha Ca
    Chacken Matulatuwa
    Chalabian
    Chalia
    Chalimah Chudlori
    Chandra Ireng
    Chandraleka
    Chandralela
    Changcuters
    Chani
    Chap Ayam
    Charles Hutagalung
    Chaseiro
    Chekink
    Cherrybelle
    Chicha Koeswoyo
    Chilung Ramali
    Chintami Atmanagara
    Chitra Dewi
    Cholifah Cholil
    Cholil S.
    Chris Biantoro
    Chris Manusama
    Chrisdiana W.D.
    Christine Hakim
    Christine Ningrum
    Christine Panjaitan
    Christine Sukandar
    Chrisye
    Chusnul
    Cici Suwarno
    Cicih Cangkurileung
    Cillya Sumanti
    Cindy Bernadette
    Cindy Tourisia
    Cinta Musica
    Cinta Ramlan
    Cita Citata
    Cita-Rama
    Citra Musica
    Citra Skolastika (Scholastika)
    CJR
    Claire
    Clan
    Clique Fantastique
    Coconut's
    Combat's
    Combo Ria
    Comets
    Commanche
    Commandos
    Connie Constantia
    Copacabana
    Copatone
    Corps Musik Kepolisian Negara
    Corps Polisi Militer
    Corriati
    Cosmopolitan
    Country Jack
    Crabs
    Cuarteto Los Modernitas
    Cucu S. Setiawati
    Cucun Cunayah
    Culture Vulture
    Cupi Cupita
    Cut Yanthi
    D & R
    D. Kasim
    D. Sjahdi
    D. Subgjo
    Dadali
    Dadang Darniah
    Dadang Syarief
    Daeng Jamal Purba
    Daeng Soetigna
    Dahlan
    Dahlia
    Daina Razak
    Damai Yanthie
    Damayanti
    Dammoesjsjoeban
    Dang Dut
    Dangdut Sunda
    Daniel Sahuleka
    Daniel Santo
    Danny P. Hutagalung
    Dara Puspita
    Darsih Kissowo
    Darso
    Darto H.
    Dasa Rama
    Dastanta
    Dayat Group
    D'Bodors
    D'Bondel's
    De Bebi's
    De Connections
    De & De
    De Joli's
    De Meicy
    De Nachtegaal
    De Prins
    De Sobats
    De Spin
    De Tri Max
    Deasy Arisandi
    Debby Nasution
    Debu
    Deddy
    Deddy Damhudi
    Deddy Dores
    Deddy Irama
    Deddy M. Borhan
    Deddy Stanzah
    Dede Amung Sutarya
    Dede Faroga
    Dede Kurniasih
    Dedeh Winingsih
    DeeDee & Memes & Rida
    Deidi Kayung
    Dekat
    Delima
    Delly Rollies
    Delon Thamrin
    Demokratik
    Denda Sukma
    Dendang
    Dendang Asli
    Dendang Kelana
    Denny Albar
    Non Dera Siagian
    Derai
    Dessy Azhar
    Dessy Idris
    Detty Kurnia
    Devi's
    Dew
    Dewi
    Dewi , Anon & Rudy
    Dewi Ellya
    Dewi Ellyana
    Dewi Gayatri
    Dewi Husain
    Dewi Puspa
    Dewi Sandra
    Dewi Sartika
    Dewi Surti
    Dewi Yull
    Dewinta Stanny
    Dharma Bhakti
    Dharma Musika
    Dharma Putra Kostrad
    Dhaya Sakti
    Dhenda Sukma
    Dhenok Wahyudi
    Dhiana Achmadi
    Dhyan Permana
    Dhyo Haw
    Di Muhammad Devirzha
    Diah Bersaudara
    Diah Iskandar
    Diamer's Group
    Dian Anggraini
    Dian Angreni
    Dian Chaerani
    Dian Fakih
    Dian Irama
    Dian Kelana
    Dian Mayasari
    Dian Orchestra
    Dian Piesesha
    Dian Pramana Poetra
    Orkes Melayu Diana
    Diana Achmadi
    irama
    Diana Nasution
    Diana Papilaya
    Diana Rose
    Diana Yosinta
    Diana Yusuf
    Dianeta
    Dianne Carruthers
    Dick Suprapto
    Dicky Prawoto
    Didi Hamidi
    Didi Pattirane
    Didi Suara
    Didiet
    Dience Koes Endang
    Dimas Pradipta
    Dimin
    Dina Mariana
    Dinar Adam
    Dinda
    Dipo A.R.
    Diponegoro
    Disc
    Disco Anak
    Discotique
    Diselina
    Diwana
    Dja'far Thahir
    Djadjat
    Djadjat Paramour
    Djaizar St. Nagari
    Djajadi Djamain
    Djaka
    Djaikem
    Djajadi Djamain
    Djamain Sisters
    Djamilah
    Djanad
    Djanoko
    Djarat Paramour
    Djasri
    Djatu Parmawati
    Djauhari
    Djayusman
    Djedjaka
    Djoeminem
    Djoko Soesilo
    Djoko Subagjo
    Djon Karjono
    Djuhana Sattar
    Djuliah
    Djum
    Djum Suwarni
    Djumirah
    Djun Laila
    Djunaenah
    Djunaidah
    Djunaidah Sjafi'i
    Djunainah
    Djuria
    Djusna
    Djuwairijah M.A.
    Djuwari
    Djuwarijah T.M.
    Djuwati Djoko
    Djuwita
    D'lloyd
    D'Masiv
    Do Re Mi Group
    Doan Lean
    Dodo
    Doddy Ronald
    Doel Kamdi
    Doel Sumbang
    Dolok Martimbang
    Dompet
    Donna Sumarna
    Donny Fattah
    Donny Hardono
    Donny Saleh
    Dora Sahertian
    Doris Callebaute
    Dothy Amelia
    Double "D"
    Double "S.B."
    D'Quarto
    Dragons
    Drakhma
    Drive
    D'Rumah Harmoni
    D'Strangers
    D'Trail
    Dua Gembrot
    Dudeh Diwangsih
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    Orkes Dukun Duka
    Duo Anggrek
    Duo Kribo
    Dupa Nirmala
    Dygta
    Dynamic
    E. Bahaudin
    E. Nanuru
    E. Sasmita
    E. Tjandrasena
    E. Tjarmedi
    Earthquake
    Eben Haezer
    Eben Hutauruk
    Ebiet G. Ade
    Echo's
    Edcoustic
    Edang Sasmita
    Eddo Z
    Eddy Bharata
    Eddy Chaniago
    Eddy Hookerman
    Eddy Kardianto
    Eddy Lestaluhu
    Eddy Linnarta
    Eddy Lumatauw
    Eddy Muljono
    Eddy Rosa
    Eddy Silitonga
    Eddy Sud
    Eddy Sumlang
    Eddy Syam
    Eddy Tulis
    Edo Z
    Edward
    Edward Pardede
    Edy
    Eem A.R.
    Een Ratnaningsih
    Efek Rumah Kaca
    Effendi
    Effendi Slameto
    Efy
    Ega Robot
    Eka Djaja
    Eka Jana
    Eka Ria
    Eka Sapta
    El Badr
    El Banat
    El Hurriya
    El Jadin
    El Jihad
    El Kawakib
    El Manaar
    El Madora
    El Musika
    El Namiras
    El Rafiqa
    The El Rithana Batak Singers
    El Sitara
    El Surayya
    Elan Surawisastra
    Electrica
    Elfa's Group
    Elfa's Singers
    Eli Rahayu
    Elisa
    Eliz
    Elly A. Hasan
    Elly Aritonang
    Elly Kasim
    Elly Nurdin
    Elly S.P.
    Elly Sastra
    Elly Srikudus
    Elly Sunarya
    Ellya Khadam (Agus)
    Ellyana Ayu Soraya
    Elmonderos
    Elsa Mardian
    Elshinta Combo
    Elshinta Hawaiian Seniors
    Eltuji Group
    Elvy Sukaesih
    Elvy Zeed
    Elvyn G. Masassya
    Elya Agus
    Ema Kusnadi
    Emi Nurhayati
    Emilia Contessa
    Emilia Hasan
    Emma Rahman
    Emma Ratna Fury
    Emmanuel
    Emmy
    Emmy Indra
    Empat Nada
    Empat Sekawan
    Encih Mintarsih
    Endah N Rhesa
    Endang A.H.
    Endang Dianita
    Endang Mawarni
    Endang S. Taurina
    Endang Wahyuti
    Endank Soekamti
    Endar Pradesa
    Endi Mamon Sigarlaki
    Endro
    Engkam
    Engkar Suwarsih
    Engkin Sukatmamuda
    Enny
    Enny Koesna
    Enny Kusrini
    Enok Suwarsih
    Enrico Tobing
    Enteng Tanamal
    Entin Kartini
    Epen Cs.
    Erfa
    Eric Van Houten
    Erlan Effendy
    Erlina Boru Tarigan
    Ermy Kullit
    Erna Amin
    Erna Angelia
    Erna G. Fillia
    Erna Madona
    Ernie Djohan
    Ernie S. Octavia
    Ernie Soemarto
    Ernie Sugarna
    Ernie Tanjung
    Erns Mangalo
    Eros Djarot
    Ersy W.
    Erva
    Ervinna
    Erwin Gutawa
    Esdhi Song Group
    Espehana
    Esther
    Estherlina Tetelepta
    The Eternal's
    Eti
    Etika Nada
    Etika Rama
    Etrie Jayanthie
    Etty
    Etty Bajuri
    Etty Bardja
    Etty Handa
    Etty Kusumah
    Etty Sukardi
    Eurasia
    Euis Darliah
    Euis Gartika
    Euis Kartini
    Euis Komariah
    Euis Jamilah
    Euis Maryati
    Euis Nengsih
    Euis Rukmini
    Euis Walet
    Euis Wasiat
    Eva
    Eva Diana Sari
    Eva Hartati
    Eva Hasan
    Eva Hasyim
    Eva Malik
    Eva Manurung
    Eva Noerdin
    Eva Solina
    Eva Widiowaty
    Eva Yolanda Kailola
    Eva Yusuf
    Evaty Dy
    Evawati
    Evert
    Evi Mariany
    Evi Martha
    Evie Hendarmin
    Evie Sunarko
    Evy Rahayu
    Evy Soenarko
    Exotic
    Exsamasist
    F. Kusmianti
    Fadiah El Bash
    Fadlun
    Fahmy Shahab
    Fahmi Latukonsina
    Fairuz
    Faisal Amir
    Faizah Harris
    Fajar Menyingsing
    Famous
    Fanny's Group
    Fantasi Group
    Fantastic Group
    Farah M.P.
    Fardian
    Farid Hardja
    Farida
    Farida Arriany
    Farida S.
    Faried S.
    Farisa
    Fariz Rustam Munaf
    Faruk Amir
    Fatimah
    Fatin Shidqia Lubis
    Fatullah
    Fauzi Harry
    Fauzia
    Fauzia Abdullah
    Fauziah Noor
    Fauzie
    Favourites
    Females
    Femmy Johar
    Fendy Agham
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    Fenny Hetharya
    Fenty Effendie
    Ferdy Fardian
    Ferry & Co
    Festival's
    Fetty Fatimah
    Fifi Kaboel
    Filia Aslam
    Finny Rosita
    Fiqar B. Syah
    Fitria Elvy Sukaesih
    Fitriah
    Five
    Five Minutes
    Flamboyant
    Flowers
    Forly
    Fornada
    Four X
    Franky
    Franky Manoppo
    Franky Sahilatua
    Frans Dana
    Frans Daromes
    Frans H. Manurung
    Frans Randi
    Frans Rotinsulu
    The Freaks
    Fred Belloni
    Fred Firmansjah
    Freddy Hitipeuw
    Freddy Tambunan
    Freddy Tamaela
    Fredie Pareira
    Free Five
    Free Lance
    Free Man
    Freedom (Of Rhapsodia)
    Frieda Simandjuntak
    The Friendly Group Aria
    Friends 82
    Fuad
    G.A. Group
    Gadih Rantih
    Gadis Manikam
    Gaguk Wur Hardiyanto
    Gaja Remadja
    Galaxies
    Gama Musika
    Ganda Mekar
    Gangga
    Gany Ali
    Gamaliel Audrey Cantika
    Ganto Sori
    Gatot Sunyoto
    Gavillas
    Gazali Rahman
    G'brill
    Ge & Ge
    Gebyar Swari
    Gege
    Geisha
    Gembells
    Gembira Ria
    Gema Batam
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    Gema Patriot
    Gemilang
    Gemons
    Generasi Group
    Gentra Maja
    George De Fretes
    George Manuputty
    Ger Van Leeuwen
    Geronimo II
    Gesang
    Geteks
    Giant Step
    Gigi
    Gijs Pattiwael
    Giman
    Gipsy
    The Girls
    Gita Atika
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    Gita Gutawa
    Gita Karana
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    Gita Rosita
    Gito
    Gito Rollies
    Giwang Kara
    Gloria Trio
    Glow
    God Bless
    God Spell
    Goerit Reso
    Golden Hands Group
    Golden Rhythm
    Golden Star
    Golden Wing
    Gombloh
    Gongga Sitompul
    Gonzales Combo
    Gordon Tobing
    Gospel Singers
    Grace Simon
    Greatest
    Greggy Manupasa
    Grenimo
    Gribs
    Gugum Gumbira
    Gunung Kidul
    Gugun & The Blues Shelter
    Gumarang
    Gunarti Bersaudara
    Gunawan
    Gunung Kidul
    Gupusta Ria
    Guruh Soekarnoputra
    Gusti Ega Putrawan
    Gusti Imaludin
    H. Dariyah
    H.A. Aziez Muslim
    H.M. Nazri
    H.M.V Orkest
    H. Mutoharoh
    H. Suwito
    Hadi Budaja
    Hadi D.S.
    Hadi Tjilik
    Hadji Ramli Soeliki
    Hadji Saleh El Moenir
    Haji Nur Asiah Jamil
    Hadjir
    Halimah Yusuf
    Hamako Watanabe
    Hamdan Atamimi
    Hamid M Nur Cbb
    Hamidah
    Hamiedan
    Han Wen
    Hand's
    Haniah Muhammadong
    Hanif Radin
    Hanny Joseph
    Hanny Tuheteru
    Hanung Sukhendra
    Happy Pretty
    Happyness
    Hard Boys
    Hardy Prajitno
    Harie Dea
    Harijadi Sadono
    Harlan
    Harlin Widhaswara
    Harmonie's
    Harry
    Harry Balagadona
    Harry Cahyono
    Harry Noerdie
    Harry O. Mamudi
    Harry Roesli
    Harry Sabar
    Harry Santoso
    Harry Toos
    Harry Van Hove
    Hartono
    Harun
    Harvey Malaihollo
    Hasan Abdi
    Hasan Masein
    Hasanudin
    Hashim
    Hasjim Khan
    Hasmanan
    Hasnah H.S.
    Hasnah Tahar
    Hasta Nada
    Hasyim S.
    Hawaian Orkest
    Hawaiian Kailola
    Hawaiian Seniors
    Hayat W.
    Hayatun Hamzab
    Head Quarter's
    Heart
    Hedy Marlina
    Heidy Diana
    Helen Koeswoyo
    Helen Sparingga
    Helista
    Helly Gaos
    Hemi Pesulima
    Hena Nila Murni
    Hendarso
    Hengky M.
    Henny Gatot
    Henny Puriandari
    Henny Purwonegoro
    Herlin Rajiman
    Henry Manuputty
    Herijati
    Herlaut
    Herlin
    Herlin Widhaswara
    Herlina Effendi
    Herlina S.
    Herman Felani
    Hermansyah
    Herry Uban
    Hertaty Malem Bukit
    Herti Sitorus
    Hetty
    Hetty Koes Endang
    Hetty Moeradhie
    Herty Sitorus
    Hey Gress
    Hickmat Nazri
    Hiclass
    Hijau Daun
    Hikmah
    Hikmah Tirya
    Hilda
    Hilman
    Hindun Dhiana
    Hindun Komalasari
    Hit Makers
    Homen 73
    Hon Ky's Group
    Hoogy
    Hosiana
    Humizar Siadari
    Humphrey S.k.
    Husein A.S.
    Husein Bawafie
    Husin Alaydrus
    Husni Arif
    Hutauruk Sisters
    Ian Antono
    Ibrahim H.S.
    Ice Camalia
    Ice Yolanda
    Icons
    Ida
    Ida Bagus Ngurah
    Ida Djamain
    Ida Eliza
    Ida F.
    Ida Hannas
    Ida Hurida
    Ida Laila
    Ida Leorita
    Ida Mufidah
    Ida Rosyid
    Ida Royani
    Ida Sanjaya
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    Ida Zain
    Indah Andarini
    Idaly Sisters
    Idiot
    Idjah Hadijah
    Idrus Hasni
    Idris Daeng
    Idris Sardi
    Igor Tamerlan
    Iin Batara
    Iin Bimbo
    Iin Marlina
    Iin Parlina
    Iin Wariah
    Iis Cahya
    Iis Dahlia
    Iis Komalasari
    Iis Sugianto
    Iis Sugiarti
    Ijah Khadijah
    Ika Madan
    Ika Puspa Dewi
    Ika Rostika
    Ikang Fawzi
    Ikbal
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    Ikke Nurjanah
    Ikko
    Ilahi
    Ilin Sumantri
    Ilin's' Group
    Iljas Sjarief
    Imal Kurnia
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    Iman Muheri
    Imaniar The Kid
    Imas Mintarsih
    Imas Permas
    Imas Sarirasa
    Imawati
    Imela Kei
    IMeyMey
    Imik Suwarsih
    Imil
    Impola Group
    Indah Dewi Pertiwi
    Inder
    Indische Club Amsterdam
    Indonesia Group
    Indonesia Lima
    Indra Budi
    Indra Gozal
    Indra Jati
    Indra Lesmana
    Indra Tjahya
    Indra Widyawati
    Ine
    Ine Sinthya
    Infectious Grooves
    Ingan Malem Bukit
    Inge
    Ingot B. Nainggolan
    Ingrid Fernandez
    Ingrid Michel
    Inih Carinih (Tjarinih)
    Inka Christie
    Inne Kusnadi
    Inne Suherman
    Inneke Kusumawati
    Inpres
    Insan Norma
    Insulinde
    Intan Ali
    Intan Nurtjahja Simandjuntak
    Inung Basuki
    Ipi
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    Ira
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    Irawadi
    Ireng Maulana
    Irianti Erningpraja
    Irium Group
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    Irma's
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    Is Haryanto
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    Itje Yolanda
    Itjih Suwarni
    Itjo Latumeten
    Itoh Masitoh
    Ivan Handojo
    Ivo Nila Kreshna
    Ivo's Group
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    Iwa K.
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    Iwon Soetomo
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    J. Rudhy Soenarto
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    Jakarta Power Band
    Jaju Djunaedi
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    Jetty
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    Jim Noya
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    Jimmy Samallo
    Jipibifikimos
    JKT48
    Joan Tanamal
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    Joe & His Band
    Joejoen
    Joek Asri Rahaju
    Joel Anggara
    Joel Crizal
    Joes Mardiat
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    Johan
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    Johana Satar
    Johannes Purba
    John Arnos
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    Joice Erna
    Jojo Wikarja
    Jojoh Rokajah
    Jojon
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    Joko Yuwono
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    Joop Sahulata
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    Journal's
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    Jun
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    K3S
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    Keenan Nasution
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    Kelompok Kampungan
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    Keluarga Kesenian Bali Studio Denpasar
    Kembar
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    Ken Olomo Hawaiians
    Ken Ranthy Dhewi
    Kenanga
    Kenangan
    De Kere's
    Kertas
    Kesenian Gurindam Minang
    Ketjapi
    Ketut Aswin
    Khafilah Munif
    Kharisma
    Kharisma Alam
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    Khoiriyah
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    Ki Nartosabdo
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    Kids
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    Kilima Hawaiians
    Killing Me Inside
    Kim Njong
    Kings
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    Klasik Minang Asli
    Kodamar
    Koes (plus)Bersaudara
    Koes Hendratmo
    Koestaman
    Kohinoor
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    Komaria
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    Kontjo Lamo
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    Kotak
    KPJ
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    Kris Biantoro
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    Kutilang
    Kwa Toemboe
    Kwartet Bintang
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    Kwartet Jaya
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    La Rosa
    Lady Face's
    Laila Suhad
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    Laki
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    Lanny Sisters
    Lanny Sukowati
    Larasati
    Laredo
    Last Child
    Latif M.
    Latifah
    Latifah Achmad
    Lebyah
    Leerly
    Leila E. Sitompul
    Lelly Asri
    Lena
    Lena Sasongko
    Lenggo Geni
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    Lenny Beslar
    Lenny Widya
    Lentina Boru Saragih
    Leo Adiatna
    Leo Kristi
    Leo Sapulete
    Leo Spel
    Leo Waldi
    Lerry Toelle
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    Libra Nada
    Libra Trio
    Lie Tan
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    Lies Minawati
    Lies Pulungan
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    Lies Sunardi
    Lies Tobing
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    Liesda Djohan
    Liliana
    Liliek Suparba
    Lilies Karyani
    Lilik Fadlum
    Lilik M.S.
    Lilin Herlina
    Lilis Karlina
    Lilis Suryani
    Lilly Marlene
    Lily Junaedhy
    Lily Marlen
    Lily Sjarif
    Lima Sekawan
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    Lina Junaidi
    Lina Rantih
    Linda
    Linda Christian
    Linda Hamid
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    Linda Rujana
    Lingga Tobing
    Lira Rosdiana
    Lisa
    Lisa Samu Samu
    Lisette
    Lisratna
    Lista Sanger
    Liza Tanzil
    Lizard
    Lizbeth Pardede
    Lizzy Supusepa
    Lokanada
    Lokananta
    Lolypop
    Louis Berthe
    Louise Hutauruk
    Lucie Elias
    Lucky Resha
    Lucyawati
    Luigi chrisye
    Lukman A.R.
    Lulus Sedianto
    Luna Maya
    Lusi Saleh
    Luciawati
    Lussy Leona
    Lutfiah
    Luthfi
    Lydia Kandou
    Lydia Natalia Hadijaya
    Lydia Noorsaid
    Lyla
    Lysta Yuri
    M.A. Barmawi
    M.A. Hetty
    M.A. Imran
    M.A. Remu
    M. Djau
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    M. Faris
    M.G. Soewarsih
    M.G. Voice
    M. Hanief
    M. Haris
    M. Hassan
    M. Masyhur
    M. Noor H.S.
    M. Rivany
    M. Rodhi Rahmat
    M. Napsin
    M. Nuh
    M. Nurdin
    M. Rivani
    M.S. Group
    M.S. Hudi
    M. Sagi
    M. Sani
    M. Sanip
    M. Shinwan Yasin
    M. Sjah
    M. Soerjamah
    M. Sujudi
    M. Taslim Ibrahim
    M. Yusuf
    M. Zahid Mimbar
    M. Zen Radjo Mangkuto
    Machyoel
    Madean K.
    Madesya Group
    Madhora
    Madi Asdi Noor
    Madio Laras
    Madjid
    Madora
    Madrotter
    Maemunah K.S.
    Maesarah Nur Zakah (Sarah)
    Magdalena
    Magdalena Christy
    Magician
    Maharani Kahar
    Maharani Usman
    Mahdi Hasan
    Maimoenah
    Maja Serodja
    Maja Sopha
    Majang Murni
    Malando
    Malano
    Malay Opera
    Malaya
    Malichatun
    Malik Ibrahim
    Maliq & D'Essentials
    Mamah Mariamah
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    Mamon Sigarlaki
    Mang Atang
    Mang Koko
    Manfil's
    Manis Manja
    Manneke
    Manoppo Bersaudara
    Man's Group
    Mansyur Subhawannur
    Manthou's
    Marbinah
    Marcell Siahaan
    Marcello Tahitoe
    Mardiana
    Maredja-redja
    Marentjong-Rentjong
    Mardianto
    Mardjo Kahar
    Margie Segers
    Margin Winaya
    Marhaniliah
    Maria
    Maria Musica
    Maria Ulfa
    Marian
    Mariati
    Marihot
    Marini
    Marissa Haque
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    Marja Musica
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    Marjamah
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    Maruti
    Mas Adjeng Karsinem
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    Masmin
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    Masnun Soetoto
    Masoparso
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    Masyuning
    Mat Bitel
    Matador
    Maudy Ayunda
    Maulany
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    Max & Tientje
    Max Charles Runtunuwu
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    Maxie Mamiri
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    Meena
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    Meidy
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    Meita
    Meita Sari Halim
    Meity Joseph
    Meiza Thahir
    Melati
    Meler
    Melky Goeslaw
    Melly Goeslaw
    Mellyana
    Melodi Ria
    Melodia
    Melodika
    Memet Slamet
    Memory
    Mena H
    Mena Yusuf
    Mendenasz
    Menir Muda
    Menna Boru Gonrong
    Mercy's
    Meriam Bellina
    Merpati Band
    Merry Andani
    Merry Madjid
    Mesriana
    Meta
    Meta Hasan
    The Mesty
    Metro's
    Meyda Sefira
    Michael Tuhuleruw
    Micky Merkelbach
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    Midnight Quickie
    Mido
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    Mien Sondakh
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    Mike
    Mike Mohede
    Mila Amalia S.
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    Mimi
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    Minang Saiyo
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    Misnawati
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    Miranda
    Misna Andriyani
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    Miss Amelia
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    Miss Asni Loebis
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    Miss Eulis
    Miss Habiba
    Miss Iem
    Miss Ijem
    Miss Jacoba
    Miss Minten
    Miss Moor
    Miss Netty
    Miss Oepie
    Miss Oetjoek
    Miss Rafe'ah
    Miss Rehana
    Miss Riboet
    Miss Roekia
    Miss Saoda
    Miss Tidja
    Miss Tina
    Miss X
    Miss Yah
    Moch. Maricar
    Mochtar Embut
    Mochtar Kelana
    Moelyono
    Moenali Patah
    Moeria Opera
    Moersih
    Moertiati
    Moes Wandoe
    Mogi Darusman
    Moh. Nasir
    Moh. Sjibli
    Mohamad Albar
    Mohamad Sjah
    Mohammad Mas'ud
    Mokalu Bersaudara
    Molothuvz
    Mona Sitompul
    Monita Tahalea
    Monos
    Monticelli
    Mr Lim Yam Boen
    Mrapie
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    Muchsin Alatas
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    Mudhyono
    Mudjiwarti
    Muhammad Mashabi
    Muhammadong
    Muharso
    Muis Radjab
    Muljani
    Mulyadi
    Munali
    Munawati
    Mungky S. Poesponegoro
    Munif Bahasuan
    Muniroh
    Murad Haris
    Muniroh
    Murah Meriah
    Murni
    Murry
    Murry's Group
    Murtiati
    Murtini Slamet
    Mus D.S.
    Mus K. Wirya
    Mus Mualim
    Mus Mudjiono
    Mus Mujiono
    Mus Mulyadi
    Mus Mustafa
    Mutiara
    Musica
    Musica Children
    Musica Nada
    Musikimia
    Musjrifah Thohir
    Musrifah Thahir
    Mustafa Wiriyat
    Mustika
    Mustikarama
    Mustofa Dimyatie
    Muswar Mudahar
    Mutia Ruston
    Mutohar Kahar
    Muya Saroh
    Myra
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    Na Laingan
    Nababa
    Nabilah Ratna Ayu Azalia
    Nada Bestari
    Nana Bodi
    Nada Buana
    Nada Kentjana
    Nada Soraya
    Nadya Oktavia
    Nafiri Tuhan
    Nafsiah Nawawi
    Naga Mas
    Naga Mustika
    Naga Sakti
    Naga Tjengkareng
    Nagin
    Nahum's Band
    Naina Lucy
    Nainggolan Sisters
    Najo Maemunah
    Najla Akmal Bardy
    Nana Dhiana
    Nana S. Patah
    Nana Saleh
    Nana Sumarna
    Nanang Qosim
    Nancy & Helly
    Nani Safitri
    Nani Sugianto
    Nani Suryani
    Nani Trenggono
    Nani Yuningsih
    Nanin Soediar
    Nanny Suwandi
    Nany Kusuma
    Nany Widjaja
    Napsin
    Naradha
    Nafiri Tuhan
    Nasida Ria
    Nasution Sisters
    Nasydah Ria
    National
    Nayo Maimunah
    Nazareth
    Nazir
    Ndindy Supardi
    Nebula
    Nelly Supusepa
    Nellyta Rasjid
    Neneng Hasanah
    Neneng Salmiah
    Neng Jatimah
    Neng Wahyuni
    Neni Hayati
    Nenny Angelia
    Nenny Srie Wahyuni
    Nenny Triana
    Neno Warisman
    Neny Suganda
    Nephy's Group
    Netty
    Netty Jusuf
    New Big Band
    New Creation Singers
    New Electrica
    New Jakarta Power Band
    New T.T.G. Honimoa Hawaiian Players
    Ngatirah
    Ngesti Pandawa
    Ngriptoraras
    Ni Ktut Redep
    Nia Daniaty
    Nia DD
    Nia Indrawati
    Nial Djuliarso
    Nick Mamahit
    Nicke Rasyidi
    Nicky Astria
    Nicky Ukur
    Nida Ria
    Nidya Sisters
    Nidya Suara
    Nien Lesmana
    Nightbreakers
    Nike Ardilla
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    Niknik Sugiarti
    Nila K.
    Nila Kesuma
    Nina
    Nina Kirana
    Nina Nasution
    Nina Pattie
    Nina Soenarti
    Nindy Ellesse
    Nineball
    Nini Carlini
    Niniek S.
    Nining Agus
    Nining Lestari
    Nining S.
    Nining Tjilik
    Nining Yuningsih
    Ninuk Slamet
    Nirmala
    Nirom
    Nirwana
    Nisa
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    Njanji Sechase
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    No Koes
    Noah
    NoBo
    Noenoek Saelan
    Noerche
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    Noeri Satrijo
    Nok Dharmini
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    Non
    Noneng Wahyuni
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    Noor Chamimah
    Noor Farida(h)
    Noor Hasanah
    Noora Normania
    Nora Nainggolan
    Norma binti Abdullah (Manado, Sulawesi Utara)
    Norma Sanger
    Norman Rachman's
    Norman Sonisontani
    Nourma Yunita
    Noval
    Novel
    Noviati Nusril
    Novita E.
    Nowela (Elizabeth Mikhelia Auparay)
    Nuke Affandi
    Numata
    Nunah K.
    Nunieng Suwarjo
    Nunu Moraza
    Nunuk Murdono
    Nunung
    Nunung A.
    Nunung Marlina
    Nunung Suntara
    Nunung Wardiman
    Nur Afni Octavia
    Nur Asiah Jamil
    Nur El Banat
    Nur El Sjobach
    Nur El Surayya
    Nur Farida(h)
    Nur Kemala
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    Nur Sjamsu
    Nur'ain
    Nuraini A.S.
    Nuraniah Latifah
    Nurainun
    Nurhasanah
    Nurhasanah Nasution
    Nurjanah
    Nurjatin
    Nursjamsu
    Nurseha
    Nus
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    Nusa Indah
    Nuskan Sjarif
    Nyhat Novel
    Nyi Partini
    Nyi Sumiati
    Obahorok Group
    Obbie Messakh
    Oceanada
    Octavia
    Odeon Krontjong Orkest
    Odeon Opera
    Odeon Rumba Orchestra
    Odie Agam
    Oeganniatoel Banat
    Okie Joe
    Oemar Alkatiri
    Ogle Eyes
    Ojo H.S.
    Oki Setiana Dewi
    Oktet
    Olan Sitompul
    Oloan
    Oma Irama
    Omega
    Ona Sutra
    Once Mekel
    One Dee Group
    Ongen Latuihamallo
    Onny Surjono
    Onyas S.
    Opera Dardanella
    Ophelia
    Opick
    Opy Sofjar
    Oras Pinem
    Orbit's
    Oscar Harris
    Oslan Husein
    Osria
    Otto Chen
    Otto Wowiling
    Overtunes
    P & D
    P. Ramlee
    Padaeng
    Padhyangan Project
    Padi
    Paduan Suara
    Pagar Alam
    Pahama
    Painah
    Pak Kasur
    Pakih
    Pamor
    Panbers
    Panca Nada
    Pancaran Bulan
    Pancaran Muda
    Pancaran Sinar Aladin
    Pancaran Sinar Petromak
    Pancasone
    Pance Pondaag
    Pancharagam Maroeti
    Pandana
    Pandawa
    Pandawa Lima
    Panorama
    Pantja Irama
    Pantja Nada
    Pantja Warna
    Panutan
    Papo
    Parahijangan
    Paramour
    Pardolok Tolong Melody
    Parlind Group
    Pasiman Garingging
    Parlin Hutagalung
    Parwita Junior
    Pasto & Prilly Latuconsina
    Pattie Bersaudara
    Pattie Sisters
    Paul Hutabarat
    Paul Irama
    Paula Salmon
    Paulus
    Paulus Item
    Pawiroboewang
    Pee Wee Gaskins
    Peels
    Peggy Oetami
    Pelangi
    Pemuda Maluku
    Pendawa 5
    Pengabdian
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    Pepen
    Permata
    Peter
    Petra Sihombing
    Phang Tong Wie
    Philip S.
    Phoenix
    PiG
    Pil Koming
    Ping Astono
    Pins Stone
    Pipie Kirana
    Pipie Parawansa
    Pipih Komalasari
    Pipink
    PIPK BNI 1946
    Pirri Bersaudara
    Pius
    Pluto's
    Podosih
    Pomo
    Pompi
    Pongki Barata
    Ponidi Gunaswara
    Poniman
    Poppies
    Poppy
    Poppin's
    Popsy Band
    Populair Jazz Band
    PPGKI
    Pradesa
    Pradesta
    Prahasta
    Prambors
    Pranadjaja
    Prasetyo
    Pratama
    Presto
    Pretty Sisters
    Prilly Latuconsina
    Prima Nada
    Prima's Group
    Prins
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    Pro's
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    Prokous
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    Pudjanadi
    Pungky S.
    Puput Novel
    Purnama
    Purnama Sultan
    Orkes Pusaka
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    Puspa Kencana
    Puspa Kentjana
    Puspa Melati
    Puspa Rini
    Puspa Sari
    Puspita
    Putra A.G.
    Putra Bali Purantara Jogjakarta
    Putra Sangkala
    Putri Ayu Silaen
    Putri Una
    Quarta Nada
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    R. Adikarso
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    R.R.I. Jogjakarta
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    Rachman Abdullah
    Rachmat E.
    Rachmat Kartolo
    Raden Tuteng Djohari
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    Radio Djakarta
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    Raidy Noor
    The Rain
    Raisa
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    Raka
    Rama Aiphama
    Ramaika
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    Ramona Group
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    Ran
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    Ranzas
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    Ratih Dewi
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    Ratmanto
    Ratmi Bomber
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